SEX and GENDER
Sex and Gender are seen as distinct by sociologists while seeing both of these states conceptually. Sex is described in following description, physical difference of two states is sex.
One is male and other is female. Male and female have difference of characteristics like chromosomes, organs, hormones and muscularity etc., in between them.
It is only biological and physical differences between male and female term so it does not changes in human societies. There is a state intersex which hold when characteristics like chromosomes, hormones, organs are combined in an individual, like mix characteristics of a male and female.
Some characteristics are shown in a baby at the time of birth but sometimes until the time of puberty, it is not shown and after that treatment of these mixed characteristics can cause infertility, loss of sensation etc.
Gender is not defined on the differences of biological characteristics. It depends upon the point of view of societies that what characteristics and behaviour’s a man and woman have in themselves. It is a like a cultural or a social norm in which society manages two sex male and female their roles and their activities to do in a society.
Gender is also determined by what an individual feels and what he does. In gender aspect, society approaches masculinity which a term for behavior of men and other one is femininity which is the term which refers to the behavior of women in the society. There is term Transgender which occurs in a human when one’s biological sex and gender identity does not matches.
GENDER AND INEQUALITY
Inequality among genders is social process which refers to the unfair rights between men and women based different gender roles which leads to the unequal treatment in their respective lives. This distinction between the genders is supposed on the basis of biological, psychological factors as well as on cultural norms.
Research studies showed that life experiences faced by the males and females came across many domains including personality, race, education, interests, life expectancy, political affiliations and career. But it mainly depends upon the culture in which they are living because gender inequality differs in intensity from culture to culture.
But it is a fact that women throughout the world often receive less education and are not employed at the same salary as their male counterparts. Persistent gender gaps not only impact women but also they are damaging the socioeconomic development of entire population.
From this perspective, gender inequality is a disadvantage to the societies that must compete in global markets where countries around the world are taking steps to decrease gender gaps and improving their economies.
Various surveys and researches shows that girls and boys raised in completely different manner and constitute a different approach from one another towards life. According to “structural functionalists”, gender roles arise from the need to establish a division of labour that will help to maintain the smooth running of a family which will help to contribute in stabilizing the society.
Beside this, these are issues which people might not openly spoke about them which may include harassment in the developing countries. Some of the most prominent examples of gender inequality and discrimination comes from “Me too” stories where women are coming forward in huge numbers where they are telling about being harassed and bullied by the men who have power over them especially in workplaces.
However, as a matter of fact gender inequality is becoming a big argument in society about whether the equality among genders should be encouraged or not. Although there are many reasons leading to gender discrimination which cannot be easily solved. So as the time passes, with the help of education and progressive thoughts of people, there are also hope to trust in the future of gender inequality being stopped.
GENDER AND INEQUALITY IN WORK
At work places, gender inequality exists in a large portion of the nations including Pakistan. People groups are not given opportunities based on their insight, abilities and capacities however based on sex they are having a place from. By and large, females are consider to be less useful as contrast with males thusly are given less freedom
Albeit the Constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan in Articles 3, 25, 27, 37 and 38 qualifies “Everyone to be treated equally without discrimination and forbids exploitation of any sort”. However, shockingly females are not treated similarly in various parts of life particularly at working environments.
“Any society that fails to harness the energy and creativity of its women is at a huge disadvantage in the modern World”
The sex proportion of the Pakistan is 105.07, which shows that measure of males and females is generally equivalent maybe, women are dealt with terribly particularly at work environments. As per Labor Force Survey Report 2014-15, “There were 13.35 million (23.24%) women in the total employed labor force of 57.42 million”. The responsibility taken from both males and females is equivalent yet females are pay less for their work due to factor of Gender imbalance.
The normal month to month compensation of female in Pakistan is just 61.45% of male’s pay. Having higher educational levels than men and accounting for almost half of the population, women are recruited at a much lower rate than men, because women account for less than 5% of top management, and less than 10% of top earners.
The fact that women haven’t filled these high- paying, lucrative jobs in the past is one of the reasons they aren’t in them now. This suggests that recruiters for high-status roles, which are mostly filled by men, look to fill these vacancies through their own network of men.
Inside working environment, females face great challenges including gender pay gap (Women earn 77.9 cents for every dollar earned by Men),Less chances to get high roles, Sexual Harassment (According to the survey Stop Street Harassment, 38 percent of women have experienced sexual harassment in work place),Unemployment Penalty, etc.
In view of having less held seats for ladies in work places, they discovered trouble in securing proper position part for themselves. In a particularly abnormal climate, females couldn’t play out their undertakings well.
GENDER AND INEQUALITY IN POLITICS
Politics and patriarchy go hand in hand, as politics is related to ruling and governing, it also represents power, authority, and dominance, and because of the patriarchy men are considered as an authority figure which is why they are also automatically considered to be the only gender that is fit for ruling and governing and hence are dominating the political sector, which ultimately leads to extreme inequality in politics.
If we analyze politics in Pakistan, we can clearly see that inequality, patriarchy, and religion are major underlying factors of the political system, and therefore there is a lack of female politicians in Pakistan. Although Fatima Jinnah played a major role in the independence of Pakistan, it still wasn’t enough for women to be properly accepted in politics, as it took Pakistan 41 years after its inception to finally have its first female Prime Minister in 1988, this can also be taken as evidence for how deep rooted the patriarchal system and inequality towards women truly is in Pakistani Politics.
The men who later came into power in Pakistan made it even more difficult and formed a stronghold for the patriarchy, Ayub Khan’s constitution in 1962, made it difficult for women in politics to survive as it only allowed six women in legislature through indirect elections, during Zia’s Regime the laws passed were fixated around inequality towards women within the political system and throughout the country making it difficult for women in general to survive, with laws such as ‘Chadar aur Chaar Divaari’ (Veil and four walls) and Law of Evidence in which a man’s testimony was considered to be more superior than a woman’s.
Even with years of continual inequality against an entire gender, in 1988 Benazir Bhutto became the first female Prime Minister of Pakistan, and became a symbol of hope for the rest of the female politicians.
In conclusion, in Pakistani politics religion has constantly been used as political weapon especially against women, as a way of trying to undermine and suppress them, and with all the obstacles that women constantly faced in politics and society within Pakistan, it was not enough to entirely withdraw them from the political sector, even though they still have a long way to go, they definitely deserve appreciation as the odds have been against them from the start.
Gender and Inequality in Military
From a sociological point of view, Military is one of institutions that is mostly disregarded in many sociological studies. Compared to other aspects of life, there hasn’t been enough studies and researches conducted regarding the role of genders and the inequalities in the Military.
Despite all this, the role of genders in the military have only progressed over the past few decades. Military around the world was previously seen as a traditionally patriarchal institution but now there has been an increase in the number of women in the armed forces.
The stereotype and inequalities in the military are common, especially towards the women. The sexism faced by the women in the military is not always of the apparent and aggressive type where women in military might be ridiculed or frowned upon but instead most of it stems mainly from the belief that women are fragile, sensitive and that they require constant care and protection.
Women are perceived and seen as less competent than men in the fields of not just physical strength and combat but also in engineering, technology, mathematics, and critical thinking, all of which are sub divisions in any military institution in the world. Women in military are not always permitted to perform all the same tasks as their male counterparts.
Women in military and their male allies around the world have worked hard to not just achieve equality but also obtain the right to accomplish many different assignments.
In the example of Pakistan, the role of women in the armed forces has been greatly encouraged since the inception of the nation in 1947. Despite the encouragement, especially from the first lady Begum Ra’ana Liaqaut Ali Khan, women were banned from the battlefield, instead they were given support roles in administration and engineering.
The Pakistan Army trains and allows women to take part in some warfare, however mainly in hostile areas where urgent medical support is required. . In all these years’ only three women in Pak Army have reached the rank of major general which include, Shahida Malik, Shahida Badshah and Nigar Johar. Nigar Johar is the first and only woman in Pak Army to reach the rank of lieutenant general.
After many years of non-permitting women from fighter pilot position, the Pakistan Air Force now has a program where women are properly trained to be inducted as fighter pilots. Flight Lieutenant Ayesha Farooq was the first Pakistani fighter pilot.
In Air Forces and Army alike, women are not inducted every year, which is one of the reasons why the ratio of women to men is so low in these military institutions.
The biggest inequality faced by women in Military, not just in Pakistan but also internationally, is that they are not given the right to perform the same tasks as the men. In spite of this inequality still present, women in the Pakistani Military are given the right to have equal pay as their male counterpart.
GENDER AND INEQUALITY IN EDUCATION
In educational institutions, gender inequality has been experienced. Girls have been discriminated against in terms of various aspects as compared to male. The primary aspect in terms of gender inequality has been experienced is in participation. The students are required to participate in number of areas in educational institutions.
Girls were provided with less participation opportunities as compared to their male counterparts and hence, it led to prevalence of gender inequality. In rural communities, this problem has been more severe as compared to urban communities. In Baluchistan the lowest percentage of educated women, as of 2014-15, 81 percent of women had not completed primary school, compared to 52 percent of men. 75% of women had never attended school at all, compared to 40 % of men.
According to this data, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa had higher rates of education but similarly huge gender disparities. Sindh and Punjab had higher rates of education and somewhat lower gender disparities, but the gender disparities were still 14 to 21%. Gender inequality in education is regarded as the major impediment within the course of overall progression of the system of education.
Therefore, it is vital to formulate measures and programs that are focused upon making provision of equal rights and opportunities to girls, not only within the course of acquisition of education, but also in the implementation of other job duties. The parents at home and teachers in school need to provide equal participation opportunities to girls.